Thursday, August 27, 2020

Movie Overview Boy Essay Example For Students

Film Overview Boy Essay The movie Boy, coordinated by Taika Waititi, is an exceptionally intriguing film made in New Zealand. It follows the tale of the primary character, Boy, a multi year old kid who at long last gets an opportunity to know his dad, who has come back to discover a pack of cash he covered years prior. There were a few significant occasions in this film, however the primary one was when Boy gets high on cannabis, and understands that Alamein, his dad was never there for him or his mom. Through this occasion, Boy’s perspective on his dad changes in a negative way, and Boy likewise starts to regard Rocky, his sibling and discovers duty and development inside himself. The executive, Waititi, utilizes a few visual and oral methods, for example, discourse, flashbacks, non-diegetic sound and perspective shots to show Boy’s change in demeanor towards his dad. At the point when Boy gets high on weed and sits on the scaffold, he sees flashbacks of when his mom was pregnant, and when she kicked the bucket. From these flashbacks, he understood his dad was never there, he wasn’t there when his mom was pregnant or when she passed on. It was now that Boy understood reality with regards to his dad (Alamein) and that he had made bogus pictures of Alamein every one of these years. This is caught consummately by the executive, Waititi, who utilizes the perspective shot successfully to catch Boy falling in reverse from the extension through Boy’s eyes, and gave us how he felt at that point. It gave us that Boy’s world flipped around, truly, as he discovered reality with regards to Alamein. This acknowledgment of his father’s reality prompts an upheaval of outrage. Waititi’s utilization of discourse shows this well as Boy says â€Å"I’m in no way like you! † in anger to Alamein. This shows he has at long last surrendered to the way that his dad isn’t what he thought, and in all actuality, Alamein isn't somebody to turn upward to. This occasion had both positive and negative impacts on Boy. Constructive on the grounds that Boy’s at last observed the genuine individual his dad was, and discovered reality with regards to him. Negative on the grounds that after every one of those long periods of pictures Boy made in his mind of his dad, to discover they were all bogus more likely than not been incredibly difficult to deal with for a multi year old. Mental harm would have significantly influenced kid, he would’ve likely always been unable to confide in another man completely once more. This occasion additionally in the end prompted another beneficial outcome on Boy as he took on a job of obligation and indicated development past his years. After the acknowledgment was made about his dad, Boy adapted to the situation and cared for his cousins and sibling as opposed to depending on Alamein. This could be seen when Boy woke up the day after his encounter with Alamein, and Boy fired tidying up the house without anyone else and making his family food, stepping up. This demonstrated how he in a flash took on an enormous job of obligation, without grumbling. This was amazingly positive as this is a significant worth that he will most likely carry on into what's to come. Waititi utilization of non-diegetic sounds was exceptionally shrewd in this scene, as it set the pace in a predicament; where music began in a moderate tone and developed its way to a faster pace as kid started cleaning, which recommends Boy and his family don’t need their thoughtless dad so as to live their lives. Waititi likewise utilized this music to show that Boy had developed into and free individual who assumed liability for his family and fabricated a more grounded care for them. Boy’s development could be seen again when Boy lied about the whereabouts of Alamein to Rocky when Alamein had vanished after his showdown with Boy. Kid likewise didn’t enlighten Rocky regarding the way that Alamein was never there for them two, not in any event, when their mom kicked the bucket. This could be seen through Waititi’s utilization of exchange, â€Å"Where’s father? † asked Rocky, â€Å"He’s in Japan preparing to be a samurai† answered Boy. .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 , .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 .postImageUrl , .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 .focused content region { min-tallness: 80px; position: relative; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 , .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3:hover , .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3:visited , .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3:active { border:0!important; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 { show: square; change: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-progress: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; obscurity: 1; progress: darkness 250ms; webkit-change: mistiness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3:active , .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3:hover { haziness: 1; progress: murkiness 250ms; webkit-progress: obscurity 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: rela tive; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: intense; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; text-improvement: underline; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; fringe span: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; text style weight: striking; line-stature: 26px; moz-outskirt sweep: 3px; text-adjust: focus; text-embellishment: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa1 8ad343bfe3 .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .ucc4e43842dde1fb5c76aa18ad343bfe3:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: The play content and the film The Crucible EssayThis demonstrated that the occasion positively affected Boy, as he needed to shield Rocky from the individual his dad truly is, which was very mindful and adult for his benefit. It additionally indicated that his relationship with Rocky had fortified, and will keep on fortifying into the future, which can be viewed as positive. By and large, I imagine that the movie ‘Boy’ coordinated by Taika Waititi was a truly pleasant film to watch. This film had numerous significant occasions, yet the headliner was Boy’s acknowledgment of his dad, and how he was never there for Boy and Rocky. This Event prompted Boy seeing his dad distinctively in a negative way, and it likewise prompted Boy assuming greater liability for his family; along these lines it was significant with regards to this film. It had both positive and negative impacts on Boy. Positive since kid saw his relationship with Alamein was based on lies, and due to Boy’s freshly discovered depiction of development and duties past his years. Be that as it may, Boy was additionally impact adversely in light of the fact that after all the long stretches of deference towards his dad, the truth would have been amazingly hard for the multi year old.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Marketing Communication Boral Limited Company

Question: Talk about the Marketing Communicationfor Boral Limited Company. Answer: Presentation Boral restricted organization is among the main and notable firm in Australia. The firm significantly manages assembling of development materials and putting resources into land advancements. The organization has its home office in Sydney, Australia and different branches at various pieces of the nation. It further flexibly its items and administrations globally in nations found in Asia and United States (Blakeman, 2014). In demonstrate hatred for the blasting benefit streaming into the companys accounts, there are countless difficulties being experienced. That is the reason the organization is attempting new method of promoting their items. Recently, more development organizations had been shaped in this way representing an incredible danger on Boral restricted long time magnificence. Those organizations are fighting to be the main development organization both in Australia and furthermore universally (Moriarty, Mitchell Wells, 2012). Boral restricted has various methods of coming to its customers and increment new clients. They do this by decreasing their items cost and giving out markdown on mass exchanges. The firm has apportioned more assets for ads. Various items and administrations is being displayed and feature available in order to pull in more sells. Target Audience Segment Analysis The essential objective are neighborhood development contractual workers and center salary workers in Australia (Boone, 2012). New requests for possessing houses have developed. Most youngsters are going additional mile to set aside cash and contribute on purchasing homes. SWOT Theory Solid brands: Products publicized is gotten by numerous resident. More sells had been seen after ad (Waller, 2012). The brand is known by numerous Australians residents who have once utilized this companys items. Strength: Boral restricted development item last longer contrasted with that fabricated by their rivals. Numerous Australians despite everything trust on Boral items which they term them as enduring and tough. They even feel free to go about as great envoys on this items. Medical problem: The Company put main goal to its representatives. All specialists are being given security gears (Kelly Jones, 2012). Those security gears must be worn by its laborers while working in the development organization. Those security gears are caps, gloves, and wellbeing boots. All representatives are given leave from work month to month and they the organization pays social insurance protection for them and their life partner. Negative exposure: Boral Company had been remembered for different negative conversation. Human right exercises had contend the believability of the companys readiness to diminish air contamination caused with their assembling ventures (Blakeman, 2015).The firm is having overwhelming machine which produce hurtful substance to the air. The organization had note this and are currently utilizing propelled machines which emanates less unsafe substance on condition. Openings and Threats Client section: Boral Company are concentrating on little land contractual workers as they keep reasonable item and administrations offered by the organization. Neighborhood temporary workers are the significant purchasers of their item. This move make Boral to keep connecting with new little temporary workers firm and get tenders to flexibly their item to them. Costs: The Company is attempting to arrive at the low pay workers in an offer to help their sells benefit (Belch, 2015). The association is attempting its best to satisfy the need on low salary populace. The organization is focusing on low pay workers who are the greater part in the region, contrasted with the rich people. Immediate and roundabout contenders: Different organizations are attempting to think of progressively current items which is presenting late dangers. As of late interest for new innovation item is at rise and Boral firm isn't disregarding this dangers. They are learning their rivals botch and redress their item before it arrives at potential customers. Promoting Communication Deals Objectives To accomplish colossal benefits, customers mindfulness is principal and must be given primary goal (Chitty, Luck, Barker, Valos Shimp, 2015). Client ought to be sharpened on various item and administration offered as this will assist them with having a calm choice on which thing to look over. That is the reason Boral Company is utilizing various techniques to accomplish higher sells. This has been made conceivable by contributing on promoting and correspondence with its customers. Mindfulness Boral organization in Australia is attempting to make its items known to its customers at a beginning time. This move has improved companys notoriety. Individuals who start with the organization on its development will consistently stay with the organization even on its most exceedingly awful minutes. Appreciation The organization is promoting on TV, online life and Daily paper, in an offer to win back the trust its client had for a considerable length of time. These methodologies have demonstrated to be solid as of late. Prominently, the administrative group is wanting to stretch out this techniques to nearby domain the nation over (Kelly, et al, 2015). The utilization of disconnected methods for showcasing has been instrumental since the majority of the individuals despite everything depend on them for sure fire data. Conviction The firm is joining forces with natural association to have a more secure condition. They have purchased new machines which forestall discharge of air contamination. The encompassing habitants are being sharpened on how the business is to work out to ensure they are not experiencing companys creation exercises (Ogden, 2014). Activity The administrative group had given deals operators a thumbs up to demand for customers criticism in the wake of utilizing and buying their items (Belch, 2012). This activity has indicated a positive outcomes. Client, feel associated with the companys prosperity by offering out their thoughts. Reviews are being completed after a timeframe to ensure they convey what they plan to provide for their clients. Imaginative Strategy Advancing Appeals Customers are having common association with the organization (Houseknecht Valente, 2013). The organizations is attempting its best to reach to low salary workers. Basically, the organization is doing this by advancing its item and administrations to the provincial zones in Australia. Promoting Agency Publicizing association are joining forces with Boral Company by advancing developments item and administrations. They are promoting via web-based networking media, sites, radio, TV, and boards (Koekemoer, 2014). Media Plan Advancement Steady advancement will make the item known by many. Advancing can enable numerous individuals to have a look of items they generally find out about (Shimp Andrews, 2013). Including all the more advertising groups on street appear, will ensure more residents have familiarity with the item and administrations offered by the organization. Day by day Newspaper Boral organization utilizes every day paper to publicize its item. They depend on day by day paper since it is pertinent to bigger populace. Most Australians, depend on paper to search for chances to contribute. TV TV will pass on companys data to relatives who will thus choose to claim a house. That choice will be an addition on Borals side. Visual pictures do affect on how individuals do settle on choice. Radio Boral organization is utilizing radio since it is less expensive contrasted with visual publicizing on Television (Percy, 2014). The vast majority who are fun of tuning in to music on radio get an opportunity to get ad while having a good time. Arrangements and Promotion Arrangements are best strategy which had held customers for a long time. Clients feel subsidiary to the firm when they are given rebate. They feel progressively valued and perceived by the organization. A little thankfulness can lead a client to allude more individuals to the organization. Each customer should be taken care of with best quality of polished skill, on the grounds that the individual may affect items advertising. Assessments of IMCPlan Effectiveness Challenge Making challenge exercises will draw in outcasts to feel subsidiary to the organization. This is the best time to grandstand, companys items to be known and customers will have a one on one chance to pose inquiries, and get quick answers (Solberg, 2013). Those test are fun and gainful to the association. Customers and the companys staff do have incredible chance to blend and express what they feel about their items. Web Boral organization has a site where customers can arrange items on the web. Representatives are conversing with the customers by means of web based life like Facebook, YouTube and twitter. This is helpful in that customers can speak with the organization at the solace of their home. Spending Allocation The organization made a benefit after duty was 268 million Australian dollars. Offers rose from the past 31.9 pennies to 35.8 pennies per shares (Tuckwell, 2013). The administrative staff had distributed more assets in order to expand its showcasing systems. End As indicated by Moriarty, Mitchell Wells, (2015) Integrated Marketing Communication Plan (IMC) do help in the development of an association. Utilizing this technique, eventual fate of an association can be anticipated and conceivable danger turned away. Besides, it has been seen that customers who are included on companys exercises will in general have an enthusiastic association with the organization, a reality that has caused the firm to understand its benefit. Rivalries in the market is sound and advantages the clients who have assortment of alternatives to browse. Reference Burp, G. E., Belch, M. A. (2012).Advertising and advancement: a coordinated advertising correspondences point of view. New York, McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Burp, G. E., Belch, M. A. (2015).Advertising and advancement: a coordinated advertising correspondences point of view. Blakeman, R. (2014).Integrated promoting correspondence: innovative technique from thought to execution. Blakeman, R. (2015).Integrated advertising correspondence: inventive system from thought to im

Friday, August 21, 2020

New Moratorium on Alexander City, Alabama, Payday Loans - OppLoans

New Moratorium on Alexander City, Alabama, Payday Loans - OppLoans New Moratorium on Alexander City, Alabama, Payday Loans New Moratorium on Alexander City, Alabama, Payday LoansInside Subprime: Feb 20, 2019By Lindsay FrankelPayday loan and title loan providers will be barred from setting up new storefronts in the historic district of Alexander City, Alabama, thanks to a one-year moratorium that received unanimous approval from the City Council.In a 6-0 vote, the council banned new vape/tobacco shops, payday loan and title loan shops, check cashing stores, tattoo parlors, liquor/beer shops, pawn shops, and arcades from opening up in the district for the next year.The goal is to give officials time to assess businesses in the historic district, indicating that rezoning could be the next step. Businesses currently located in the historic district will not be impacted by the moratorium.Community development director Al Jones said the downtown historic district is zoned for high-density retail businesses currently, and the moratorium will help a group decide if changes should be made and certain types of bus inesses should be limited. That group includes Jones, the Alexander City Planning and Zoning Commission, the Historic Preservation Commission, Main Street Alexander City and the Alexander City Chamber of Commerce. Mayor Jim Nabors said that similar moratoriums have taken effect in cities like Hoover and Decatur.Payday loan and title loan storefronts, check cashing stores, and pawn shops are often considered predatory because they charge high interest and fees for financial services. 33.3 percent of Alexander City residents live in poverty, making them especially vulnerable to high-cost loans. And lenders charge an average interest rate of 461 percent on payday loans in Alabama, according to data from Pew Charitable Trusts. Cash-strapped individuals with bad credit frequently turn to payday loans because they lack alternative options, but most borrowers end up paying more in interest and fees than the loan principal, which strips away an unnecessary percentage of borrowers’ already limited income.Stacy Jeffcoat, executive director of nonprofit Main Street Alexander City, said the resolution will help officials identify standards for the appearance of the historic district. “We want to take some time to do some studies on what kind of businesses we want downtown, especially in the historic district,” Jeffcoat said. “There are certain standards we want to maintain as far as the facades and the type of businesses there. This will give everybody time to do things in the correct way.”The historic district was established in 2011 to encourage a downtown renaissance. The area, which includes most of downtown, is transitioning into a cultural center for the arts, entertainment and food.While the effects of the moratorium have yet to be evaluated, it is possible that prohibiting new wealth-stripping businesses could have a positive impact on the financial health of Alexander City residents while helping the historic district to recruit new businesses.For more information on  payday loans, scams, and  cash advances  and  check out our city and state financial guides  including Alabama,  Birmingham, Huntsville,  Mobile  and  Montgomery.Visit  OppLoans  on  YouTube  |  Facebook  |  Twitter  |  LinkedIn

Monday, May 25, 2020

A P By John Updike - 1532 Words

Paper 1: AP by John Updike In this essay I will be reviewing the six elements of fiction: point of view, plot, setting, characterization, symbolism, and theme in the story, AP by John Updike, to see how it constitutes to the work as a whole. Sammy, a 19-year-old cashier at the AP, narrates AP. In this first-person narrative, the narrator tells us everything as he sees it, but since it is a limited point of view the narrator is unreliable. But this allows the reader to notice growth in the character and it helps demonstrate how the narrator is different than the people around him, as his actions suggest. We notice a change in the point of view as the story progresses. At first we see the narrator complaining about the conformity in his society then later acknowledges the problem and acts on it. This occurs with the introduction of the girls, who are seen as mocking the conformity by wearing bathing suits into AP. Seeing this, the narrator tries to show support for this act unconformity by quitting his job at AP removing his bow tie and apron in the process when he feels the girls were mistreated and asked to leave store. With the introduction of the issue of conformity, which is a serious issue, we still notice the use of humor and irony in the tone though at the end even though the narrator felt he did the right thing by pointing out that the way the girls were treated was wrong and quitting his job, but he was left lost as his act was seen unnoticed, ending the storyShow MoreRelatedA P By John Updike982 Words   |  4 PagesThe story that this research paper is being written over is â€Å"AP† by John Updike. This story is filled with good grammar and has a well written plot and good transition. A person reading the story â€Å"AP† could see it as an interesting story filled with good symbolism. The main character, Sammy, uses a great deal of symbolism when describing the three girls in bathing suits who walked into the store he works in. the three girls in bathing suits that walked into the store where the center of the wholeRead MoreA P By John Updike1190 Words   |  5 PagesA P is a story of Sammy who is a 19 year old boy working as a clerk at a grocery store in a small town in New England. Published back in 1961 narrative defining A P is the popular mythology of 1960s basically where youthful rebellion powers took over the soulless system. (Sustana) Therefore Updike has written a story that includes key elements of myth along with the background of postwar prosperity and the attendant consumer culture. Where there is a strong hint of the Cold War as hero characterRead MoreA P By John Updike1704 Words   |  7 PagesIn the story AP by John Updike a young cashier by the name of Sammy learns about the power of desire and the mystery of others minds when working at an AP supermarket in a small town north of Boston in the 1960’s, where there was a lot of social norms and many people didn’t step out of them. The young nineteen-year-old Sammy wasn’t expecting his Thursday shift at AP to go the way it did when income three young girls but, these are not your socially normal teenagers who come walking in the doorRead MoreA P By John Upd ike1160 Words   |  5 Pagesthe girls’ exit and regret fills him. What he thinks is noble and just becomes a changed, regretful soul. In â€Å"AP† by John Updike, the symbolism portrays the theme of the desire for change. The girls’ immodesty is a symbol of rebellion, revealing the theme of the desire for change. As Sammy acknowledges in the short story, the story takes place â€Å"north of Boston† (Updike 360). The estimated time period is the 1960s. At this time, most of the younger generation longed for change, whichRead MoreA P, By John Updike1019 Words   |  5 Pagespsychoanalytical lens can be used to analyze AP, a short story by John Updike, lone, a piece of art by John William Godward, and â€Å"To My Best Friend - Short Film†. Through this lens, readers can draw the theme that all humans have basic instincts and urges that lie in the unconscious mind. Throughout Updike’s AP, it stands clear that we are always being influenced by fundamental human desires. AP is told from the perspective of Sammy, a teenage cashier at AP. In the beginning of the story, three teenageRead MoreA P By John Updike843 Words   |  4 Pageshelp establish the uniqueness of his or her use of speech through the story’s title, structure, punctuation, setting and the communication between characters. In the story A P by John Updike, the author sets the story in a very ordinary place where everyday people go shopping for their groceries, in a market known as A P. Updike’s style within the story shows many aspects of ordinary life. For example, in the first sentence of the story, the narrator Sammy uses incorrectly the word walks, â€Å"InRead MoreA P By John Updike1441 Words   |  6 PagesJohn Updike is considered one of the greatest writers in modern American history. He is known for the idea that seemingly ordinary aspects of American life are actually quite fascinating. He wanted readers to see the beauty and magic of life, so he tried to describe everyday things using the most clear but beautiful language possible. Many of Updike’s pieces are drawn from his own life such as his marriage and his boyhood, as shown in three of his short stories: â€Å"AP†, â€Å"Ace in the Hole†, and â€Å"PigeonRead MoreA P By John Updike765 Words   |   4 PagesJohn Updike wrote, â€Å"A P† in 1961. In this era of the 1950s and early 1960s, conservative dress mirrored conservative social values. Conformity was the measure of popularity as well as a measure of moral rightness. During this time, people were more afraid of being labeled outsiders than they were afraid of the outsiders themselves (â€Å"A P†). Gender issues and the emergence of feminist consciousness are represented when Lengel states the rules that proclaim the girls are decently dressed-codingRead MoreAP by John Updike512 Words   |  2 Pages â€Å"AP† by John Updike is a story about a boy who learns that all actions have consequences. In â€Å"AP† three girls walk in to the store AP in nothing but their bathing suits. Sammy one of the stores cashiers describes what the girls are wearing and what they do throughout the story. The girls walk up and down the aisles catching the attention of many of the other customers. The girls then get in line at Sammy’s checkout, the manager Lengel walks up and tells the girls they will have to leave thisRead MoreA P By John Updike1033 Words   |  5 Pageshow we face these decisions will have an impact in our lives, and sometimes the ones that seem to be small are the most important ones. John Updike understood how making decision affects people’s life, and he develops it in his short story â€Å"A P,† which is the story of an unhappy boy who quits his job for a pretty girl. In order to develop this theme, John Updike takes Sammy, the main charac ter of the story, through three different stages. In the beginning stage, Sammy is just a boy who is not happy

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Gender Wage Gap Within Society - 1050 Words

Throughout history females have often times not been treated fairly compared to their male counterparts. The gender wage gap has been a real and prevalent thing in our society. Even in the present, women are inclined to get lower salaries than men throughout the world, and most importantly the United States where the constitution says â€Å"all men are created equal.† All salaries are on a weekly basis and percentages are cents a woman earns per dollar a man earns. Although, there is much we can do as individuals to stop discrimination in the work force. The United States’ wage gap is caused by discrimination against women, who have less opportunities for higher paying jobs, and in order to eradicate this issue in our country and worldwide, women need to be treated impartially in the workforce. There are many reasons why the gender wage gap exists in society. One of them is that there is blatant and unconscious bias against women that has built up over centuries. In America women have equal access and completion rates (add some statistics on this?) of higher education and in some places, even more than men, but they still do not necessarily have the same opportunities after they graduate. Many women end up with lower level and therefore lower paying careers. This also is not necessarily a result of women not being ambitious enough, most women are simply unable to work as much as men and some even quit their jobs once they get families. This fact that women simply work less hoursShow MoreRelatedThe Gender Wage Gap Within Society1281 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout history females have never been treated fairly compared to their male counterparts. The gender wage gap has been a real and prevalent thing in our society. Even in the present, women are inclined to get lower sala ries than men throughout the world, and most importantly the United States where the constitution says â€Å"all men are created equal.† All salaries are on a weekly basis and percentages are cents a woman earns per dollar a man earns. Though many are currently working to fix the situationRead MoreGender Inequality And Gender Equality Essay1540 Words   |  7 Pagesmyth about gender equality. It isn t a reality yet. Today, women make up half of the U.S. workforce, but the average working woman earns only seventy-seven percent of what the average working man makes. But unless women and men both say this is unacceptable, things will not change† stated Grammy Award winner, Beyoncà © (Knowles-Carter 34). Although in the twenty-first century, women are still fighting for equality to simply be paid the same amount as men. The main causes of this gender inequalityRead MoreGender Wage Gap By Susan B. Anthony875 Words   |  4 Pagesmovement was just beginning in the United S tates. Even after all this time, the gender wage gap is a still hot topic in the United States today. Popular stars and politicians including Kate Winslet, Jennifer Lawrence, and Hillary Clinton all have something to say about it. There is even a section of dedicated to discussing the gender wage gap which is the comparison of women s wages to men’s wages in the United States (â€Å"Equal Pay†). It is pretty common knowledge in the United StatesRead MoreEqual Pay Act Of 19631382 Words   |  6 Pagesreceiving less pay than males in the workforce is known as the Gender Wage Gap. Equal Pay Act of 1963 The wage gap has been a problem in the workplace for a long time now, but we are seeing constant progress. In 1963, the Equal Pay Act was signed into place, this law was passed to try and abolish any type of wage disparity based on gender. This law has made a difference in our country with closing the wage gap. The problem remains that the wage gap continues to close at very slow rate. In 1963, women earnedRead MoreWomen s Unequal Treatment Of Women1139 Words   |  5 PagesVirtually, every known society past and present, women have not been treated as an equal to men. According to (UN NATIONS WEBSITE DEFINITON OF UNEQUAL TREATMENT of women CITATION HERE)it is unequal treatment of individuals based on their gender. UN agencies and most governments agree on the principle of gender inequality. The question at large is what accounts for the difference between the rhetoric of equality and the reality of inequality? The single aspect of gender inequality of men and womenRead MoreDiscrimi nation, Policies, And The Gender Wage Gap1088 Words   |  5 Pages Discrimination, Policies, and The Gender Wage-Gap   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For decades, the gender wage-gap has been an ongoing issue in Canada. Since then, women’s rights have changed and allowed them to obtain career positions much like men. Although women have successfully fought for their rights, the issues of the gender wage gap, and sexist stereotypes continue in Canada. The Canadian Government needs to strengthen its discrimination policies so it can rectify and allow for equal opportunity, support parentalRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution : The World Into The Forward And Advanced World We Live1387 Words   |  6 Pagesmuch of society, primarily the lives of women; although women were given job opportunities, their lives during the industrial revolution were unfortunate due to the working conditions, large wage gap, and lack of a social status. The Industrial Revolution is defined as an economic transition in society, specifically involving the means of production. The Industrial Revolution was started in order to specialize, mechanize, and organize the means of production, in turn reforming society as a wholeRead MoreGender Inequality : Gender Pay Gap975 Words   |  4 PagesThe gender pay gap in Hollywood The gender pay gap is the difference in pay earned by men and the pay earned by women.( Pay Equity Commission, 2012). There are various ways in measuring the pay gap between genders, such as full- time or full- year wage. Statistics Canada data ( 2012) displayed that the gender pay gap in Ontario was 26% for full- time and full- year employments, which means for every C$1 earned by a man, a woman earned 74 cents( Pay Equity Commission,2012).The pay gap has been narrowingRead MoreGender Pay Gap : Inequity, Work And Society1482 Words   |  6 PagesGender Pay Gap: Inequity, Work and Society In Australia over the last 20 years, it is documented that a person’s income and wages, differs based on one’s gender, known as the gender pay gap (The Conversation, 2017; Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA), 2017c). This paper will discuss what a gender pay gap is, various economic explanations for this gap, summarise sociological responses, and identify possible policy recommendations and their implications. The gender pay gap is generally measuredRead MoreWomen Have Always Seen A Gap In Pay, But Recently The Dispute1639 Words   |  7 PagesWomen have always seen a gap in pay, but recently the dispute about the gender wage gap has aroused and angered many in the U.S. Many Americans have labeled businesses as sexist due to the gap in pay among men and women. As many people know, men and women have many differences such as caring for children, different interests when it comes to the workforce, and many others. Naturally men and women have many differences that cause a bit of a gap when it comes to pay. While gender is most definitely a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

`` The Bees, The Flowers, Jesus, Ancient Tigers, Poseidon,...

Poetic Philosophy In Sarah Kaplan’s article â€Å"A white guy named Michael couldn’t get his poem published. Then he became Yi-Fen Chou.† it explains the controversy revolving around the nomination for the 2015 edition of Best American Poetry. The poet, Michael Derrick Hudson, applied the pen name, Yi-Fen Chou, to his nominated poem â€Å"The Bees, the Flowers, Jesus, Ancient Tigers, Poseidon, Adam and Eve† after numerous failed attempts of nomination under his own name. Majority of the controversy’s energy was aimed at the fraudulence and racist tone of Hudson’s pen name; however some of this energy leaked onto, Sherman Alexie, the editor that added this poem to the anthology. Further down the article it provides the defensive statements of both Hudson and Alexie toward the outrage. With Hudson’s statement we learn that there was no intent for the pseudonym to bear a racist tone; although he clearly succumbed to the fact that the intentional fraudulen ce was for his own benefit. And, for Alexie, we find out that there was no ill intent when his choice arrived; other than his interest of the mixture of western ideals with an â€Å"Asian† poet, and also for his simple love for the poem. For ethical reasons we may hold Hudson accountable for his intent to wield a lie for his own benefit and we could also hold Alexie accountable for not withdrawing the poem after knowledge of the fraudulence. According to Hobbes every humane individual acts in their own self-interest, which is guided by

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Phytochemical free essay sample

Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Used for the Management of Hypertension by Esan people of Edo State, Nigeria J. K. Mensah, R I. Okoli ,1 A. A. Turay,2 and E. A. Ogie-Odia Department of Botany 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences Ambrose Alli University, P. M. B 14, Ekpoma, Nigeria Issued 01 October 2009 Abstract Hypertension is one of the principal health problems in the society and a leading cause of cardio-vascular deaths in various communities worldwide. Over 33 plants and their products have been reported in Nigeria and other West African countries to offer remedies for the management of hypertension. In Esanland of Edo State, Nigeria, 14 endemic plant species distributed in 12 taxonomic families have been identified by various traditional health practitioners as being effective and commonly used to manage hypertension (Psidium guajava, Piper guineense, Loranthus spectobulus, Talinum triangulare, Senna occidentalis, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Carica papaya, Euphorbia hirta, Ocimum gratissimum, Persea americana, Peperomia pellucida, and Vernonia amygdalina). Qualitative phytochemical analyses of the plant parts have revealed the presence of various components of medical importance including tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponin and inulins. Cardiac glycosides were present in all the species studied while alkaloids were present in all except A. sativum, A. cepa, O. gratissimum and P. americana. Saponnins were present in all except the seeds of negro coffee (S. accidentalis), while tannins were present in all except bulbs of garlic (A. sativum). This preliminary study draws attention to the need for further studies of the active principles identified in the reported species for the treatment of hypertension in Esanland in order to understand their mode of action in controlling hypertension. Key words; Medicinal plants, hypertension, phytochemistry. Introduction Hypertension is one of the principal health problems in the society and an important cause of cardio-vascular deaths in various communities worldwide. It is a silent killer whose onset of complications is insidious. Such complications as cardiac remodeling, hypertrophy, renal impairment, nephropathies and ocular complications such as retinopathies and cardiovascular accident or stroke (Benowitz, 2001) are associated with hypertension. Traditionally the use of plant parts as source of herbal preparations for treatment of various ailments are based on the experience passed from generation to generation, virtually by oral tradition and through practice and forms part of the indigenous knowledge of people of any locality (Olowofela, 1991; Sofowora, 1993). Most of these herbal remedies are known by our traditional healers and elderly men and women of families in our rural areas. The herbal knowledge or practices known by traditional healers are jealously guarded with utmost secrecy for economic reasons. According to Obute (2007), many traditional herbal practitioners also tend to hide the identity of plants used for different ailments largely for fear of lack of patronage should the patient learn to cure himself. Thus to mystify their trade, cultivation of the plant is not encouraged, consequently collection is virtually from the wild. Fortunately, some elders of the rural societies do willingly impart this knowledge to interested people sometimes on payment of an inducement fee and this has helped in the propagation of some herbal knowledge in this country. Infusions and decoctions have historically been the traditional dosage forms for orally administered medicinal plants. These infusions and decoctions are usually good for extracting water soluble active ingredients such as glycosides, mucilage, alkaloids, polysaccharides and tannins, but are limited by their unpleasant taste, shelf life; and the poor solubility of many phytochemicals in water. As a result, many modern herbal practitioners prefer tinctures and fluid extracts to infusions and decoctions. The use of alcohol / water mixture as solvent is efficient in extracting a wide variety of active ingredients. In addition alcohol is a good preservative for herbal preparations compared to water. Many herbal preparations are yet to be scientifically investigated. Some of the plants also contain potentially poisonous substances including mutagens, and carcinogens whose long term adverse effect may not be immediately obvious to the herbalists (Awosika, 1993). The authors of this report are not unmindful of the fact that like all other drugs some of the various herbal preparations are likely to have adverse effects. Furthermore, the concomitant ingestion of herbs and drugs or different herbal preparations is also of particular concern as there is potential for herb-drug or herb-herb interaction to occur (GHP 2007). A number of medicinal plants abound in Nigeria’s flora (Gbile, 1986) which is the richest country in West Africa with regards to medicinal plant resources. The country exhibits a wide range in terms of climate and topology which has a bearing on its vegetation and floristic composition. Some of the information on these medicinal plants are in books written by Dalziel (1937, 1948) Oliver, (1960), Ayensu (1978), Sofowora (1982, 1993) Gbile (1986), Gill (1992), Awosika, (1993), Iwu, (1993), Kafaru (1994), Dokosi, (1998), and Odugbemi (2006) Other records on herbs that are used to manage common ailments in Nigeria are scattered in the works of Adegoke et al. 1968 ), Gbile and Adesina (1987), Anonymous, (1993), Obute (2007), Okoli et al. (2007) and Mensah et al. (2008) among others. Herbal preparations are used in traditional medicine as crude drugs in various dosage forms, as whole, crushed, powdered forms, decoctions, dried extracts, infusions, poultices and tinctures (GHP 2007). Many of these plants have been investigated in recent times and found to contain active substances that are medically useful, whereas many more are yet to be scie ntifically investigated. A number of plant extracts used by natives in various parts of the world as arrow and ordeal poisons were later found to contain cardiac glycosides useful for the treatment of heart failure while others like physostigmine from the seed of Physostigma venenosun from Nigeria affect cardiac functions and are used in ordeal trials (Lawrence et al 1997 ). Rauwolfia serpentina which contains the alkaloid reserpine, was perhaps the first herbal preparation used for the treatment of hypertension. A West African species R. omitoria has been used for treating the same disease and other ailments by local herbalists for a long time. This species gives much higher yield than R. serpentina but yet to be exploited commercially. The drug Digitalis was mentioned in literature in 1250B. C in the writings of Welsh physicians. Until recently, products from Digitalis namely digitoxin and digoxin which are pure glycosides were the popular drugs for the management of congestive heart failure (Ghani, 1986, Ayitey Smith, 1989). Currently, diuretics and calcium chemical blockers have taken over as the drugs of choice for the treatment of the ailment in orthodox medicine. Traditional health practitioners in Esanland regularly employ a large number of tropical plants in various herbal preparations to manage different ailments endemic to the area. Their sources include common vegetables/fruits, leaves and root/stem barks of endemic plants. The purpose of this publication is to provide a bibliographical source for the study of various plants for the treatment of hypertension in Nigeria. It also reports on various herbal plants available in Esanland of Edo State of Nigeria used in the treatment of the disease and the active principles contained in them. Materials and Methods Survey of literature An initial literature survey was undertaken to enumerate herbal plants used in the management of hypertension in West-Africa with emphasis on Nigeria. Local and national publications were assessed and then documented to serve as bibliographical source for the study of various plants for the treatment of hypertension. Survey of medicinal plants used for managing hypertension in Esanland, Edo State. Patients who had records of the ailment volunteered information about various herbal homes where they received treatments. Consequently, relevant data were generated by visits to the herbal homes and twelve elderly women in ten settlements in Esanland where the patients had directed the researchers to obtain indigenous knowledge for the management of hypertension, were interviewed. The herbalists were accompanied to the bush/forest for direct collection of plants used for the management of hypertension. The information about the local names, usages, parts of plants used, methods of preparation and administration of plants was obtained from local healers, herbalists, experienced parents and patients by filling in questionnaires during personal interviews with them. Further literature search was undertaken to corroborate the claims by traditional healers as to which plants are used to manage hypertension. Plant samples which were not readily identified in the field were taken to he Department of Botany, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State of Nigeria for proper identification. The plants which were identified for managing hypertension in the various herbal homes and by the elderly during field collection in Esanland were subjected to further phytochemical studies. Collection of Samples and Phytochemical analysis The fresh plant/plant parts collected through the method describe above were screened, together with their families and vernacular names. The leaves/plant parts were was hed under running tap water, and dried in an oven at 700 C for 24 hours. With the aid of mortar, pestle, miller, grinder, these plant parts were homogenized to fine powder and stored in airtight bottles or containers for phytochemical analysis. One gram of powder was subjected to qualitative phytochemical tests for alkaloids (Myers Reagent), saponins (chloroform and H2SO4 tests), inulin (Molischs Reagent) cardiac glycosides (Keller-Kiliani test) and tannins (Ferric salt tests) adopting the procedures described by Stephen (1970); Obute (2007) and Parekh and Chanda (2007). Results and Discussion The literature search revealed about 33 plants which are used for various herbal preparations for the management of hypertension (Table 1). The list is however not exhaustive but gives a representation of what is available in West Africa and Nigeria in particular. Of the 33 plants recorded in this report, the material of interest is the leaf in 58%; roots account for 18% while stem barks and fruits/seeds accounted for 12 % each. The plants which were identified for managing hypertension in the various herbal homes and by the elderly during field collection in Esanland were Psidium guajava, Piper guineense, Loranthus spectobulus, Talinum triangulare, Senna occidentalis, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Carica papaya, Euphorbia hirta, Ocimum gratissimum, Persea americana, Peperomia pellucid and Vernonia amygdalina. Most of the plants used for managing hypertension were of general distribution and usage in West Africa and elsewhere on the African continent; while others were limited to specific localities. This confirms the assertion that traditional healing practices and indeed management of hypertension in local communities of West Africa is part of their cultural heritage and an indigenous knowledge developed to manage endemic diseases. The popularity and use of the different plants is therefore based on the flora of each locality. A total of 14 plants species distributed in 12 taxonomic families were noted in this work for the management of hypertension in Esanland. The plant species listed (Table 2) have been found useful in the treatment of hypertension and other disease conditions based on the endemic health problems of the different settlements within the study area. Edo State serves as a good reservoir for a variety of plant species and the conservation of medicinal plants because of its rich tropical vegetation which are preserved in 48 forest reserves occupying 23% of the land area of the State (439,139ha ; Azeke, 2002) The part of interest in the majority of the species encountered is the leaf. Included in the list of plant for treating hypertension are edible vegetables such as water leaf, bitter leaf, garlic, climbing black pepper and scent leaf which are available in various open markets within the study area. However, the local herbalists were quick to point out that they do not usually administer leafy vegetables to their patients as remedy for hypertension because their effects are slow. Consequently only patients with mild cases of the disease condition are put on vegetable soups while more potent herbs (mistletoe, pawpaw, bitter and avocado pear leaves) are administered alone or in combinations with other herbs to those with relatively more serious conditions. In the present study, the plants which were identified by various herbalists in Esanland for the management of hypertension were examined for alkaloids, inulins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and saponins. The results of the various phytochemical tests revealed that alkaloids, saponins, inulins , tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were present in the plants studied (Table 3). Cardiac glycosides were present in all the species studied while alkaloids were present in all except A. sativum, A. cepa, O. gratissimum, P. americana. Saponnins are present in all except the seeds of negro coffee (S. accidentalis) , while tannins are present in all except bulbs of garlic ( A. sativum). Flavonoids were absent in the leaves of scent leaves (O. ratissimum), pawpaw (C. papaya), pear leaves (P. americana ) silver bush (P. pellucida ), and climbing pepper (Piper guineensis ). From the present study as well as interviews with the local herbalists. It could be concluded that plants that possessed tannins, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids are the most effective for managing hypertension and also providing protection for the heart. The general use of plants such as A. sativum , A. cepa, C. papaya, E. hirta, O. gratissimum, P. americana, P. pellucida, P. guajava, P. guineensis, V. amygdalina, R. omitoria, L. spectobulus, T. triangulare, and S. occidentalis in the management of hypertension and other disease condition in Esanland has also been reported in other parts of Nigeria and West Africa (Ampofo,1977, Amer and Court, 1980, Sofowora, and Odebiyi, 1987, Addae-Mensah and Musanga 1989, Gill,1992 and GHP 2007,). Herbal preparations The different herbs encountered at the different herbal homes have different medicinal properties and many of them have multiple uses and hence used for the management of more than one ailment. Thus Esan people have used some of these medicinal plants for controlling and managing hypertension and other types of ailments over the years. Gill (1992) , Anslem ( 2006) and Okoli et al (2007) have reported the effectiveness of garlic, leaves of avocado pear, pawpaw, bitter and mistletoe for the treatment of hypertension in Nigeria. Similarly, Ayitey Smith (1989) has reported the used of avocado pear, and bitter leaf for the management of hypertension and other disease condition in Ghana. Garlic has been confirmed to be very effective in the treatment of hypertension. The bulbs of garlic are blended with honey for the purpose of hypertension. The unripe rind of pawpaw is peeled and soaked in water and after three days, a cup is taken daily. The leaves are also used for treating hypertension. Leaves of avocado pear are cut into pieces, dried and made into tea, for the management of hypertension. Odugbemi (2006) has also documented the efficacy of the cotyledons of avocado pear seed for the treatment of hypertension. The cotyledons are cut into pieces, dried and grinded into powder. A dessert spoonful in 200ml hot water taken after meals gives relieve for the ailment. According to Odugbemi (2006) silver bush (P. pellucida) is also very effective in the treatment of hypertension. This is also in line with earlier reports by Ayitey-Smith (1989) in Ghana, and Anslem (2006) in Nigeria. P. guajava leaves are soaked in salt water, washed and squeezed and product made up with fresh water to give a greenish liquid that is taken, one glass two times daily for one week to increase blood level and ffer protection against heart attack. According to Addae- Mensah (1989) and Odugbemi (2006), climbing black pepper has been confirmed to be very active in the treatment of hypertension. Also, the fresh leaves of V. amygdalina are chewed and swallowed or ground, or stirred in water, and the liquid taken, to manage hypertension (Ayitey-Smith, 1989 and Okoli et al 2007). Gill (1992) has reported that a typical herbal preparation for managing hypertension in South west Nigeria contai ns Gladiolus, Sanseveira and Citrus spp. Conclusion and Recommendations Each community in Nigeria and indeed Esanland has its peculiar way of treating different ailments, and many plants are usually found useful for the treatment of common diseases such as hypertension. Efforts should be made at creating medicinal plant gardens and generally encourage the development of medicinal plants as a way of enhancing adequate health care for the people considering the rising incidence of complications and death due to hypertension.. Medicinal plant products still remain the primary source of supply of many important drugs in orthodox medicine today. Since there are so many of these naturally occurring substances of plant origin (which cover a wider range than synthetic chemicals), it is obvious that the plant kingdom offers a better opportunity of providing useful medicinal compounds for the treatment of hypertension. Furthermore, elucidating the chemical structure of active components of herbs also makes room for synthetic modifications for better pharmacokinetic profiles. It is believed that the plants used by the Esan people of Edo State, Nigeria could be potential sources of drugs if the active ingredients are identified and adequately characterized. Also self reliance (as it relates to local sourcing / manufacturing of drugs) is worth considering as it is an area in which most developing countries have a strong potential which can help to improve the people’s health standard. It is important to remark that traditional medicine is at a transitional stage in the development of modern medicines in developing countries, thus progressive and conscious efforts must be made to accelerate the transformation. Furthermore, intensive and systematic research programmes must be drawn up and implemented for the purpose of accelerating the transformation by putting science into the art of traditional medicine. Until this is achieved, traditional medicine must play a complementary role in our health care delivery system of the indigenous communities in Esanland of Edo State, Nigeria. References Addae – Mensah, I. and Munenge, R. W. 1989. Quercetin – 3 – neohesperidose (rutin) and other flavonoids as the active hypoglycaemic agents in Bridelia ferruginea. Fitoterapia, (4) : 359 – 362. Adegoke, E. A. Akisanya, A, and Naqvi, S. H. Z. 1968. Studies of Nigerian medicinal plants I. Preliminary survey of plant alkaloids. Journal of West African Science Association 13 (1): 13-33. Amer, M. M. and Court, W. E. 1980. Leaf alkaloids of Rauwolfia vomitoria. Phytochem. 19: 1833 – 1836. Ampofo, O. 1977. Some clinical observations on the treatment of selected diseases by herba l preparations. Paper presented at the international Conference on Medical Plant Research, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Anonymous 1993. Traditional Medicine as the solution to the Nigeria Health Problem. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Health Medicine 9, 3-4. Anslem, A. 2006. Nature Power. Christian Approach to Herbal Medicine. Don Bosco Training Centre, School of PTP, Printing and Finishing, Akure. 206p. Awosika, F. 1993. Local Medicine Plants and the Health of the Consumers. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Herbal Medicine. 7, 3 – 4. Ayitey – Smith, E. 1989. Prospect and Scope of Plant Medicine in Health Care. Ghana University Press, Accra. 29pp. Ayensu, E. S. 1978 Medical plants of West Africa. Reference Publications. Michigan USA Azeke, I. E. 2002. Forestry contribution to Edo State economy. In: Forest, people and the environment. Popoola. L. (Ed. ). Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop organized by FANCONSULT and Edo State Chapter of Forestry Association of Nigeria, held in Benin-City, Edo State, 5-6 September, 2002. Benowitz, N. L. 2001. Cardiovascular – renal drugs in remedy of hypertension. In; Basic clinical Pharmacology, Ketzung B. G. (Ed. ). Appleton and Lang, 7th edition. Stanford, Connecticut, USA. Dalziel, J. M. 1937 1948. Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. The Crown Agents for the Colonies. London. Dokosi, O. B. 1998. Herbs of Ghana . Ghana University Press. Accra 746p. Gbile, Z. O. 1986. Ethnobotany, Taxonomy and Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Pp. 13 -29. In: The state of medicinal plant research in Nigeria. Sofowora, A. (Ed. ), University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, Nigeria. Gbile, Z. O. and Adesina, S. K. 1987. Nigeria Floral and its Pharmaceutical Potentials. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 19: 1 – 16. Ghani, A. 1986. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine portions: Problems and prospects of their standardization, In: The state of medicinal plants research in Nigeria. Soforowa, A. (Ed), University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, 404p. Gill, L. S. 1992. Ethno medical uses of Plants in Nigeria. Uniben Press, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. 276p. GHP 1992. Ghana Herbal Pharmacopeia. The Advent Press, Accra, Ghana. 152p. GHP 2007. Ghana Herbal Pharmacopeia. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Accra, 295pp. Iwu, M. 1993. Handbook of African medicinal plants. CRS Press, Boca Raton, Florida USA. Kafaru, E. 1994. Immense Help from Nature’s Workshop. Elikaf Health Services Ltd, Lagos. 150p. Lawrence, D. R, Bennett, P. N. and Brown, M. J. 1997. Clinical pharmacology. Churchill Livingstone , USA, Pp. 99-411. Mensah, J. K. , Okoli, R. I. , Ohaju-Obodo, J. O. and Eifediyi, K. 2008. Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7 (14). 2304-2309, Obute, G. C. 2007. Ethnomedicinal Plant Resources of South Eastern Nigeria. African Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 3 (1): 90 – 94. Odugbemi, T. T. 2006. Outline and Pictures of Medicinal Plants from Nigeria. University of Lagos Press, Lagos, Nigeria, 283pp. Okoli, R. I. , Aigbe, O. , Ohaju – Obodo, J. O, and Mensah, J. K. 2007. Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments among Esan people of Edo state, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6(5): 490 – 496. Oliver, B. 1960. Medicinal plants in Nigeria. Univ. of Ibadan, Nigeria, 139 p. Olowofela, O. 1991. Herbs, the Ancient Remedy. Guardian Newspaper, Thursday 27th June, 1991, 7 (5892) : 12 – 23. Parekh, J. and Chanda, S. V. 2007. In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turk. J. Biol. 31: 53-58. Sofowora, A. 1982. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine. John Wiley Sons Ltd. New York. Sofowora, A. 993. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine, WHO, Document No. 30, 69pp. Sofowora, E. A. ,and Odebiyi, O. O. 1987. Phytochemical Screening of Nigeria Medicinal Plants. Lloydia 4: 234. Stephen, K. S. 1970. Medicinal plant alkaloids. The University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. Table 1. Some plants listed for treatment of hypertension in West Africa. S/Nr. Plants Plant material of interest Reference 1. Bridelia furruginea Benth Leaves Addae Mensah, 1992, Ampofo,1977 2. Cryptolepsis sanguinolenta (Lindl. ) Schit Roots Raymond-Hamet,1938 3. Elaeophorbia drupifera (Thonn. ) Stapf Roots Eno and Owo, 1999 4. Fagara xanthoxyloides Lam. Root and stem bark GHP, 2007 5. Allium sativum L. Bulbs Barrie et al, 1987 Anslem, 2006. 6. Zingiber officinale Roscoe Rhizomes GHP 2007 7. Psidium guajava L. Leaves GHP, 1992, 8. Heliotropium indicum L. Leaves Burkill, 1985 Kerharo and Adams, 1974. 9. Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Leaves, Fruit juice. Abimbola- Sodipe, 1986 10. Lippia multifolia Mold Leaves Mwangi, 1990. 11. Azadirachta indica. A. Juss Leaves Chaltopadhyay, 1997 12. Senna occidentalis (L. )Link. Seeds Ayitey Smith, 1989 13. Paullina pinnata L. Leaves Broadbent, 1962 Zamble et al, 2006 14. Papaya carica L. Unriped fruits Leaves Eno et al, 2000. Ayitey- smith, 1989 15. Phyllanlus ninuri Lour Leaves GHP, 1992 16. Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel Roots Raymond Hamet, 1944,Oliver 1960, Aslem,2006 La Barre ,1973. 17. Strophantus hispidus. A. P. de Candolle Roots GHP ( 2007) 18. Scoparia ternata Forssk Leaves GHP ( 2007) 19. Venonia amygdalna Del. Leaves Gill 1992 20. Persea africana Mill Leaves, Seed cotyledons Ayitey Smith, 1989 Gill, 1992. Abimbola Sodipe, 1986. 21. Canthium subcordalium DC Stem barks Ayitey Smith, 1989. 22. Loranthus spectobulus, L. Leaves Kafaru (1994) Gill, 1992 23. Gladiolus sp. L Inner bars Abimbola- Sodipe, 1986 24. Khaya senegalensis ( Desr. ) A. Juss Stem barks Gill, 1992 25. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill Perr. ) Brenan Root barks Gbile, 1986 26. Ficus asperifolia Miq. Leaves Anslem,2006 27. Talinum triangulare (Jacq. )Wild. Leaves/Roots Anslem, 2006 28. Lantana camara L. Leaves Anslem, 2006 29 Dichapetium heudebtii Engl. Leaves Okoli et al 2007 30 Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn. f.. Stem barks Gill, 1992 31 Magnifera indica L Stem barks Gill, 1992 32 Detarium microcarpum Guill Perr. Leaves Gill, 1992 33 Gongrenema latifolia L. Leaves Okoli et al. 2007 Table 2. Ethno botanical information on Medicinal plant species used in Edo State for the treatment of hypertension. S/n. Plant species Family Common names Local names (Esan)/Benin Part used Preparation and administration 1. Allium sativum Alliaceae Garlic Ayi Bulb Bulbs are minced (5 10) and blended with honey three spoons are taken three times daily. 2. Allium cepa Alliaceae Onion Anubasa Bulb Bulbs are minced (5 10) with a bottle of honey four spoons is taken three times daily. 3. Carica papaya Caricaceae Pawpaw Okodu Leaf Leaf is crushed, little quantity of H20 and native chalk is added to it, the extract is taken orally. . Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Asthma weed Azugben Leaf It is prepared as soup, and taken orally. 5. Ocimum gratissimum Laminaceae Scent leaf Ebelanma khokho Leaf A glass of leaf extract is taken before meal. 6. Persea americana Lauraceae Avocado pear Olumuebo Leaf Fresh leaves are ground, boiled in water, half a tumbler is taken. 7. Peperomia pellucida Piperaceae Sil ver bush Leaf Leaves are washed, air dried and made into powdered form, which is then taken as tea. 8. Psidium guajava Myrtaceae Guava Gova Leaf Infusion of the matured leaves is taken orally 1 cup, 1 – 3 times daily. 9. Piper guineenses Piperaceae Climbing black pepper Usira Leaf Leaves are prepared as soup. 10. Vernonia amygdalina Asteraceae Bitter leaf Oriwo Leaf Leaves prepared as soup or infusion and taken orally after meal at night. 11. Rauvolfia vomitoria Apocynaceae Serpent wood Root Infusion of the roots is taken as tea. 12 Loranthus spectobulus Loranthaceae Mistletoe Leaf Infusion taken as tea 13 Talinum triangulare Portulacaceae Water leaf Ebe-dondo Leaf Leaf infusions are taken as tea or cut roots into pieces and made as decoction. 14 Senna occidentalis Fabaceae Negro coffee Seeds Roasted, grounded and taken as beverage Table 3. Phytochemical Analysis of Screened Medicinal Plant Species. S/n Plant Species Tannins Saponins Flavonoids Cardiac glycosides Alkaloids Inulin 1. Allium sativum _ + + + _ + 2. Allium cepa + + + + _ + 3. Carica papaya + + _ + + + 4. Euphorbia hirta + + + + + + 5. Ocimum gratissimum + + _ + _ + 6. Persea americana + + _ + + + 7. Peperomia pellucida + + _ + _ + 8. Psidium guajava + + + + + + 9. Piper guineensis + + _ + + + 10. Vernonia amygdalina + + + + + + 11. Rauvolfia vomitoria + + + + + + 12 Loranthus spectobulus + + + + + + 13 Talinum triangulare + + + + + 14 Senna occidentalis + + + + + | | [pic][pic][pic]